Everything about coronavirus – SARS and MERS infection
Coronaviruses are divided into at least three subgroups called alpha, beta, gamma, and the viruses that can cause disease in us humans belong to the first two.
From December 31, 2019 to January 18, 2020, more than 200 laboratory-confirmed cases of the 2019-nCoV corona virus have been reported, all linked to Wuhan, China. Three people, all with known underlying disease, have died. In addition to 198 cases reported from Wuhan, two cases have been reported from Beijing and one case in Guangdong, China, all three with travel history to Wuhan. Two imported cases have been reported in Thailand, one imported case in Japan and one case in South Korea.
As the coronavirus incubation period is 2-14 days, the risk of new disease cases gradually decreases. The source of the infection has not yet been identified, but the current market has been closed since 1 January.
Coronaviruses are not just one but a large number of viruses, the majority of which are found in various animal species. A few of these coronaviruses, such as the SARS and MERS variants, also infect animals and humans.
A total of six different coronaviruses are known to infect humans.
Coronavirus’s three subgroups
Coronavirus is divided into at least three subgroups called alpha, beta, and gamma. The viruses that can cause disease in us humans belong to the first two, alpha and beta. Some of the coronaviruses that can infect humans only cause more natural colds and are common. In contrast, severe lung disease causes the variants of SARS and MERS coronavirus.
The different variants can give varying symptoms depending on the type of person you have been affected by.
Now and then, new variants of coronavirus appear. This happened, among other things, in 2003-2004 when there was an epidemic with one such, new, coronavirus called SARS. The country of origin for the infection was China, but with globalization, the virus spread rapidly to several countries via travelers. The theory is that the virus came from bats that, in turn, infected other humans via other animal species.
The spread of infection ceased relatively quickly, and today no new cases of so-called human infection have been registered. The reason is believed to be that sanitary measures were implemented rapidly in healthcare, got an international infection prevention work started, and that the virus itself had low infectivity.
Symptoms of SARS
- Fever – usually occurs one to two days before the first respiratory symptoms
- Loss of appetite
- Muscle aches
In one of the outbreaks, most patients also suffered from diarrhea.
In 2012, another new variant of coronavirus was discovered, known as MERS-coronavirus, or in short. The spread of the virus is still ongoing, and all cases have been linked to countries on the Arabian Peninsula. Among those who have had close contact with the infected, isolated cases have also been discovered in South Korea, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy. Sars is also found in bats, and it is believed that this is also an animal-to-human infection, known as zoonotic infection. The infection occurs in camels, which, although not evident, is found to be the source of infection. Infection between people has happened in connection with the care of the sick. Still, then to a limited extent and in most cases, the infected person has already had some form of underlying disease that makes them extra sensitive.
MERS coronavirus causes severe pneumonia and complications from other organs, especially renal failure.
Symptoms of MERS
- Symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea
A serious course of the disease occurs most often in people with a reduced immune system, high age, or chronic diseases such as diabetes and COPD.
Coronavirus – cause and spread
There is generally quite limited knowledge of how coronavirus is spread, except at SARS. Infection spread is considered to be via contact contamination, ie, through direct body contact. It can also be done through the air from coughing and sneezing. Most people are infected or infected with coronavirus once or more in their lives, but then they only cause a common cold.
Symptoms of coronavirus
SARS and MERS coronaviruses are more serious diseases that can, in both cases cause severe lower respiratory tract infection and subsequent complications in most organs. Other coronaviruses, on the other hand, can cause mild cold symptoms such as:
- sore throat
It happens that pneumonia also occurs for these, milder, coronaviruses, but especially in those with cardiac lung disease, reduced immune system, or high age.
Coronavirus – diagnosis, and treatment
To find out if you have been affected by a coronavirus, you take blood samples that are analyzed in a laboratory, or you can isolate viruses in so-called cell culture.
There is no specific treatment for the particular coronavirus, but instead, active treatment is applied for the symptoms that occur.
Coronavirus – preventive measures
Good hand hygiene is one of the most essential preventive measures, together with avoiding close contact with sick people.
While common coronaviruses are not subject to notification, infection with SARS and MERS coronaviruses is considered as a life-threatening disease. Thus, subject to the information and transmission traceability. There are also special recommendations for managing patients with SARS as well as infection with MERS for healthcare professionals to follow.
Facts Therefore it is called coronavirus
Coronavirus has a circular housing with protrusions all around, giving them a corona-like appearance in the electron microscope, hence the name.